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Wine’s Backbone: The Terroir


Image from evineyardapp.com

I’ve found that when people talk about the process of making wine, they refer to the activities in winemaking like fermentation and aging, probably because it's interesting to discuss. Yet, people forget that wine production starts in the vineyard and its growth is determined by the terroir. If you wonder why liquor stores categorize wine by its country of origin, it has a lot to do with this concept. So today, I’ll bring to light the importance of the terroir on wine.

Image from vivino.com

Terroir is a French term, pronounced as “tehr·waar”, which refers to the environmental factors of a region affecting how wine grapes grow. This includes climate, soil, and terrain. Winemakers understand the importance of the terroir of the region because it determines the characteristics of the wine and the quality of wine that can be produced. As well, some grape varieties thrive better in particular environments, so winemakers are selective in which terroirs they grow their vineyards. Since terroir heavily influences the outcome of the wine harvest, it is a strong predecessor to what techniques to use in the winemaking process and how the wine will turn out.


Climate

The climate element of the terroir determines how fast the grapes ripen, playing a role in sugar content, acidity, tannins, and flavours. I’ve found that regions with hot, humid climates like California, Argentina, and Australia excel in making full-bodied red wines like Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz. That’s because the heat brings out the favourable characteristics that make a full-bodied red wine. For example, the higher sugar content in the grapes converts to higher alcohol levels. As well, it accentuates the darker fruit notes and softens the tannins. On the contrary, areas with cooler climates like North France, Germany, New Zealand, and Canada are known for white wines and light-bodied red wines like Riesling, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, and Gewürtztraminer. In the cold, grapes ripen slower, resulting in lower sugar content and higher acidity. These wines turn out to have more elegant and fresh features, carrying tart, herbaceous and earthy notes. However, that’s not to say that grape varieties can’t be produced in different climates. It’s simply the outcome of the same wine variety will vary.


Soil

Now let’s get into what’s in the ground. Winemakers must consider the “weather in the soil” which involves the soil’s fertility, drainage, and ability to retain heat. The soil will determine how much water, minerals, and nutrients the grapevines receive. There are techniques that winemakers use to manipulate the soil to make it better for harvesting grapes like irrigation and fertilizer. This enables them to imitate the terroir of other regions, making it easier to grow a wide variety of wines and have better control of the vineyard’s grape production.


Terrain

Lastly, the terr